By Nora C. England
This can be the 1st full-length reference grammar of Mam, a Mayan language spoken at the present time via over 400,000 humans within the western highlands of Guatemala and the kingdom of Chiapas, Mexico. the results of over 3 years of in depth fieldwork in Guatemala, A Grammar of Mam, a Mayan Language is predicated at the dialect of Mam spoken by means of 12,000 humans in San Ildefonso Ixtahuacan within the division of Huehuetenango, Guatemala. England organizes A Grammar of Mam in keeping with complementary ideas: to research Mam following essentially conventional degrees of grammatical description and to give fabric in the sort of approach that the historical past info priceless for figuring out every one subject of debate shall were formerly supplied. hence, England's research of the sound approach and morphophonemic strategies of Mam is via an outline of the features of root, inflectional, and derivational morphology. Chapters on word constitution precede chapters on sentence-level syntax. A Grammar of Mam is of specific curiosity in examining a Mayan language that's either syntactically and morphologically ergative and that's cutting edge towards strengthening the ergative process. certainly in any respect degrees of linguistic association Mam is leading edge, and for that reason it's uniquely fascinating either traditionally and theoretically.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Mam, a Mayan Language (Texas linguistics series)
2. )Z may reflect less stability than is shown by other consonants in Mayan languages. ::; ku7 'down' + b'aj + kub'aj 'finish down' There are exceptions to this tendency, however: -b'ji7b'il ized consonants and movement toward long vowels. 2 final position, usually freely. There is a constraint against a glottal stop following a Examples of such free varia short vowel if there is a long vowel in the word. tion are: ~ weeky'a kub' tjaq' Glottal Stops and Long Vowels ~ ~ 'it's mine' with glottal stops which might follow short vowels, either 'down (directional)' because they follow short vowels in the suffix or because weey7 ku7 Suffixes tja7 'underneath it' they might occur after a short stem formative or other stem There is additionally one suffix in which this variation is vowel either: obligatory.
2 #26). Examples: 1 iyajii- 1 xb'alamii- 'dress' from xb'aalan 'clothing' t-xaqaniil 'stoniness' from xaqan 'rocky' -muu 2 ttx'attx'ajiil -wee 1 -nee -maa -wii -~ either have too few examples to see as clear a pattern, or ary as a data base. 1 -tx'ii -naa after back vowels and -puu after nonback vowels. after each possible root vowel, using the Ixtahuacan diction 1 -tz'ii -lee 2 1 -tz'aa It has the form also shows the same pattern of disharmony, but other suffixe 3 1 The most common of the suffixes is which shows almost perfect disharmony.
Most roots are clearly transitive or not on the basis of whether they can be inflected immediately as transitive verbs; roots exist in Mam. tzuy- very few bivalent Example: by a 1. Marginal forms are indicated The analysis of the verb is: ma (recent past) + abso1utives + ok (directional) + ergatives + an- (stem, 'hit') + enclitic. ,. ,. ,. ,. ,. ,. ,. 3p are not distinct and are therefore ambiguous because there is no way to differentiate the patient when the agent requires 1utive prefixes, cross-reference their agents with ergative an enclitic, unless the third person is indicated in a noun markers, and use the transitive forms of the suffixes of 2 mOde • The agent can be omitted entirely to express an phrase.