A Grammar of Mina by Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Johnston, Eric

By Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Johnston, Eric

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Twoconsonant clusters are allowed in word-initial position, word- and phrase-medial position, and in word-final position. The phrase- medial clusters emerge as a result of the rule that deletes word-final vowels in phrase-internal position. In word-initial position the most frequent are clusters with a sonorant, whether an obstruent followed by a sonorant, a sonorant followed by an obstruent, or a sonorant followed by a sonorant: (28) zr rn rt nk ndr mv zrumbä r-nän r-tokorj nkwä ndn mvä 'proper name, masculine' 'my hand' or rd nan Our hands' or rd tokon 'goat' 'sorghum' (nd is prenasalized stop) 'feces, refuse' An affricate may be followed by a stop: 16 Phonology (29) tstöß tskö tspädap 'chew' 'evening' 'remain crouched' In word-medial position the following types of clusters are allowed: Sonorant and sonorant: (30) tdrlan mäywä 'turn' 'pancreas' Sonorant and continuant: (31) mddmgwdrze 'donkey' Sonorant and stop: (32) bdlc&m borgadan bdrtlk tbrßos mbarkanta 'sweetness, joy, happiness' 'millet' 'dust' 'twist' 'nine' Stop and sonorant: (33) blmbriv mazeklew 'large 'shadow' Many clusters with two stops occur as a result of the reduplication of morphemes with consonantal onsets and codas: (34) bedbeden birtidblrtid dddzkddddk 'a type of dance' 'quickly' 'completely' However, there are also instances of clusters of two stops with no evidence of a composite structure: (35) dddkuts 'constellation' Nasal and stops are very frequent clusters: 3.

The tone that the vowel carried is also deleted. The tone of the vocalic suffix becomes the tone of the new syllable. Consider the addition of the goal-orientation marker a. The evidence that this marker has high tone is provided by its realization after CVC verbs: (90) ngül-yn Bombay td macirj 3SG COMP husband-PL stick GEN DEM luw-a-y nidk say-GO-3SG would you 'She said, my husband, this stick, say to it' (91) ha ndi dzannam skdn 2SG HAB fmd-GO 1DU thing mdnä wä tiki like DEM where 'Where do you find us things like this?

1 Property concept -words There are three classes of lexical items that are referred to as "property concept words" in the present work. , they have an inherent modifying function. All classes of property concept words follow the heads they modify. For all classes the head and modifier are one phrase, as evidenced by the phonological changes on the head noun, viz. deletion of the final vowel of the noun and insertion of the epenthetic schwa if so required by the syllabic structure. The three classes differ in the way they are used in the attributive function.

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