A practical guide to transmission electron microscopy. by Zhiping Luo

By Zhiping Luo

Transmission electron microscope (TEM) is crucial software for characterizing quite a few forms of fabrics. utilizing a mild microscope, the imaging solution is at numerous hundred nanometers, and for a scanning electron microscope, SEM, at a number of nanometers. The imaging solution of the TEM, notwithstanding, can commonly achieve numerous angstroms on a modem tool. moreover, the TEM may also offer material Read more...

summary: Transmission electron microscope (TEM) is the most important software for characterizing a number of different types of fabrics. utilizing a mild microscope, the imaging solution is at numerous hundred nanometers, and for a scanning electron microscope, SEM, at a number of nanometers. The imaging answer of the TEM, in spite of the fact that, can repeatedly achieve a number of angstroms on a modem software. furthermore, the TEM may also supply fabric structural details, because the electrons penetrate throughout the skinny specimens, and chemical compositional details as a result powerful electron-specimen atom interactions. these days, TEM is generally utilized in various components in either actual sciences (chemistry, engineering, geosciences, fabrics technological know-how, and physics) and existence sciences (agriculture, biology, and medicine), enjoying a key function in study or improvement for fabric layout, synthesis, processing, or functionality. This publication presents a concise functional consultant to the TEM consumer, ranging from the newbie point, together with upper-division undergraduates, graduates, researchers, and engineers, on find out how to examine TEM successfully in a quick time period. it really is written basically for fabrics technological know-how and engineering or similar disciplines, whereas a few functions in existence sciences also are integrated. It covers lots of the parts utilizing TEM, together with the instrumentation, pattern education, diffraction, imaging, analytical microscopy, and a few newly constructed complex microscopy options. In every one subject, a theoretical heritage is to begin with in brief defined, with step by step directions in experimental operation or computation. a few technical information are given so one can receive the easiest effects. the sensible tactics to procure, learn, and interpret the TEM information are as a result supplied. This ebook might function a textbook for a TEM direction or workshop, or a reference e-book for the TEM consumer to enhance their TEM abilities

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Additional info for A practical guide to transmission electron microscopy. Volume II, : Advanced microscopy

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The structure projections shown in Fig. 5(d)−(f) are consistent with the STEM HAADF images. 1 Principles of HRTEM The HRTEM image is formed based on phase contrast [6, 10, 11]. The sample should be thin enough, typically less than 10 nm, to get HRTEM images. The image resolution depends on the instrument specifications. A modem TEM with LaB6 or FEG at 200 kV or higher can routinely reach the atomic resolution of several angstroms. The HRTEM image formation process is illustrated in Fig. 6, which is described below in detail.

An enlarged image at the interface is shown in the 26 A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY Fig. 3 STEM and TEM images of a Ni-base superalloy containing γ ′ cubes with γ phase between them. (a) STEM at a lower magnification; (b) STEM at a higher magnification from the framed area in (a); (c) TEM image using a small objective aperture showing strong diffraction contrast of dislocations; (d) TEM image using a large objective aperture showing less diffraction contrast; (e) CDF image showing γ ′ phase; (f) WBDF image showing dislocations.

In Fig. 11(b), multiple Kikuchi lines weave a symmetrical pentagon pattern; in Fig. 11(c) using a smaller condenser aperture, the FOLZ spots also exhibit a fivefold symmetry. Therefore, the QC belongs to the icosahedral type. Fig. 12(a) is a CBED pattern from a crystalline FCC phase along [111], recorded with a shorter L to show the whole-pattern 3m symmetry from the FOLZ ring. If the mirror symmetry is not very clear in the whole pattern, one may tilt the sample off the zone axis to check, as shown in Fig.

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