Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles And Radioactive Waste by Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development

By Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development

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1991), “Core optimization of the European Fast Reactor EFR”, Int. Conf. on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles, 28 October-1 November 1991, Vol. 1-1, Kyoto. M. et al. (1997), “CAPRA Core Studies. High Burn-up Core – Conceptual Study”, Proc. Int. Conf. on Future Nuclear Systems (Global’97), 5-10 October 1997, Yokohama, p. 137. [9] NEA (1995), Physics of Plutonium Recycling – Volume IV: Fast Plutonium-Burner Reactors: Beginning of Life; (1996), Volume V: Plutonium Recycling in Fast Reactors, OECD, Paris.

In addition to the much higher temperature, the process allows to reduce secondary waste types. The cold crucible melter is assembled from metal tubes, transparent to electromagnetic waves. The tubes are cooled with water creating a protective insulation layer of non melted glass, preventing the tubes from melting. Cold crucible melters that could be used in the future would reduce the size and maintenance requirements of industrial equipments. The high temperatures achieved allow radioactive waste to be incorporated in a broad range of glasses; not only borosilicate or phosphate glass can be sintered, but crystalline materials such as igneous rocks could also be used.

For Scheme 1a (UOX in LWR) and the schemes involving recycling of Pu as MOX the IAEA report [17] gives a good overview of the chemical toxic elements than have to be considered. Typical chemical-toxic substances occurring in ILW are metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Bi, Cd, Hg, Be, Se, U, Pu), nitric and hydrofluoric acids and various organic components such as oils, solvents, extraction fluids and complexing agents. In case of disposal of LILW containing non-negligible amounts of toxic metals or organic components, a detailed analysis of the possible chemical toxic consequences of the disposed waste will be required.

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