Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 47 by Donald L. Sparks

By Donald L. Sparks

Below new editorial path, Advances in Agronomy either maintains its lengthy culture and expands to incorporate leading edge equipment and applied sciences. prime foreign scientists disguise themes in plant and soil sciences, biotechnology, terrestrial ecosystems, and environmental concerns.The moment quantity less than new editorial course, Advances in Agronomy, quantity forty seven makes a speciality of environmental caliber and biotechnology. 4 articles on soil technological know-how conceal acid deposition, chemical shipping, and floor complexation. articles on crop technological know-how survey sort fingerprinting and corn evolution. This and similar volumes could be of curiosity to agronomists and biotechnologists in academe, undefined, and executive. Key gains* Acidic deposition in forested soils* Modeling natural and inorganic chemical shipping in soils* floor complexation versions in soil chemical platforms* Fingerprinting crop forms* Evolution of corn

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Such changes are consistent with those predicted by Eq. (14) and illustrated (in part) in Fig. 3. 3. Retention of Nitrate and Sulfate Retention of NO, and SO;- in forest soil horizons occurs primarily by a series of inorganic and biologically mediated chemical reactions (Swank, 1986). These chemical reactions are part of the acid-base relationships of the N and S cycles in forest ecosystems (Reuss and Johnson, 1986). The discussion in this section is limited to those reactions that influence the concentration of NO, and SO$- in soil solution, and that may restrict or enhance the leaching of base cations and the mobilization of toxic cations.

The data suggest that the changes in sap chemistry necessary to cause an increase in the base saturation of the bole may have occurred as early as the mid-1940s. These inferred changes in sap chemistry would be the result of an increase in the availability of base cations in the soil solution such as observed in the RAIN project. By the mid-l960s, there is a decrease in base saturation of the bole wood, which would suggest a decrease in base cation availability. A decrease in base cation availability does not require a decrease in the concentration of base cations in the soil solution.

Thus, by adsorption onto the ion exchange surface, the polynuclear A1 cation effectively becomes part of the solid phase. Setting its activity to a value of one and rearranging Eq. (10) after substituting H + and K , (the ionization constant for water) for OH- yields the desired relationship between the A13+ and H' ions: log Ki2Kp1l6= 2pH - pAl (11) Both pH and pAl are controlled in solution because of the ion activity product of the polynuclear cation, the presence of the ion exchange surface, and the increase in the stability of the positively charged polynuclear A1 cation once sorbed in the presence of a negative field.

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