By Frederick W. Alt
Advances in Immunology, a usual and hugely revered booklet, offers present advancements in addition to finished studies in immunology. Articles handle the wide variety of subject matters that include immunology, together with molecular and mobile activation mechanisms, phylogeny and molecular evolution, and scientific modalities. Edited and authored by means of the key scientists within the box, every one quantity presents updated details and instructions for destiny * Contributions from top specialists and specialists * Informs and updates on the entire most recent advancements within the box
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2009). , 2010). 3. 1. , 1997). , 2009). , 2003). , 2009). , 2009). Thus, it has been suggested that Nurr1 contributes to the pathology of PD not only by controlling the generation and maintenance of dopaminergic neurons but also by limiting the inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes that result in the production of neurotoxic factors. , 2006). A recent report suggests that mice deficient for Nur77 exhibit significantly increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.
Orphan receptors, such as nuclear 24 Kaoru Saijo et al. 1 Positive regulation of gene expression by nuclear receptors (A) General domain structure of nuclear receptors. N, amino terminus; DBD, DNA binding domain; LBD, ligand binding domain; C, carboxyl terminus. (B) Transcriptional activation by glucocorticoid receptor homodimers. CoA, Coactivator complex; TF, general transcription factors; PolII, RNA polymerase II. GR induces the expression of IkBa, MKP-1, and GILZ that exert anti-inflammatory roles.
2004). , 2004). The ability of LXRs to upregulate ABCA1 and induce the lipidation of ApoE has been suggested to contribute to the enhancement of degradation of amyloid-b by microglia. , 2008). 3. PPARd PPARd is a member of the PPAR subfamily of nuclear receptors (PPARa, g, b/d) that plays important general roles in regulation of fatty acid oxidation. Recent studies have provided evidence that PPARd is another key transcription factor in controlling macrophagemediated clearance of apoptotic cells.