By Frederick S. Russell (ed.), Maurice Yonge (ed.)
Quantity 25 of this authoritative evaluation sequence maintains the excessive common set by way of the editors some time past. Marine biologists all over have come to worth and revel in the wide range of thought-provoking papers written by means of invited experts.In this quantity are reports of 4 animal teams which span the whole diversity of the marine nutrition chain. The function of parasites in ecology is a becoming curiosity and the parasites of zooplankton are defined intimately for the 1st time. elements of thegastropods, cephalopods and fish lifestyles also are tested intimately.
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26 CHRISTOPHER J. CORKETT AND IAN A. MCLAREN Lee et al. b. (major non-volatile components) above the control concentration, had no measureable effect on zooplankton populations that were 44-91 % Pseudocalanus. Gibson and Grice (1977), again using large polyethylene enclosures in which Pseudocalanus was the predominant copepod, added concentrations of copper. 5-3 times faster than did controls. Reeve et aZ. (1977) studied rates of ingestion and production of faecal pellets by P~eudocaZ~n~s removed from these enclosures.
C. Temporal variations 1. Seasonality of occurrence Throughout its range, Pseudocalanus shows seasonal fluctuations in abundance in relation to primary production and other factors. Where life cycles are annual, it is clear that a numerical peak must occur during the season of reproduction. But even where more or less continuous generations occur, there may be marked seasonality in abundance. Some authors have attempted to discern large-scale patterns in this seasonality. Pavshtiks and Timokhina (1972) summarized the annual cycle of Pseudocalanus in the Norwegian Sea, showing that the summer peak of abundance occurs in late June in Atlantic waters, mid-July in mixed waters, and late July in the East Icelandic Current.
However, it is often found in highly freshened waters. Kuznetsov (1973) found that Pseudocalanus avoided the freshened (6-80/103)upper 6 m of the Laptev Sea in October. The lowest estimate of the limiting salinity appears to be that of Hessle and Vallin (1934), who state that it occurs at 4-5%, in the Baltic. However, this estimate may not have taken full account of stratification. The very accurate vertical sampling in the Baltic by Ackefors (1969b) revealed 6 ~ 0 %as ~ the lowest salinity where Pseudocalanus occurred.