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Behavioral or instructive knowledge can be modelled by RTPA. A generic program model can be described by a formal treatment of statements, processes, and complex processes from the bottom-up in the program hierarchy. Definition 15. ((( p1 ) r12 p2 ) r23 p3 ) ... rn −1,n pn ) (10) where the big-R notation (Wang, 2002b; Wang, 2007) is adopted to describes the nature of processes as the building blocks of programs. Definition 16. : P= m R(@ e P ) k k k =1 (11) Equations 9 and 10 indicate that a program is an embedded relational algebraic entity.
Definition 15. ((( p1 ) r12 p2 ) r23 p3 ) ... rn −1,n pn ) (10) where the big-R notation (Wang, 2002b; Wang, 2007) is adopted to describes the nature of processes as the building blocks of programs. Definition 16. : P= m R(@ e P ) k k k =1 (11) Equations 9 and 10 indicate that a program is an embedded relational algebraic entity. A statement p in a program is an instantiation of a meta instruction of a programming language that executes a basic unit of coherent function and leads to a predictable behavior.
Although there are various ways to express facts, objects, notions, relations, actions, and behaviors in natural languages, it is found in CI that human and system behaviors may be classified into three basic categories known The Theoretical Framework of Cognitive Informatics Figure 4. The framework of formal knowledge (FFK) The Formal Knowledge System Discipline Doctrine Definitions Propositions Hypotheses Theories Theorems Concepts Empirical verifications Lemmas Formal proofs Factors Corollaries Laws Arguments Principles Instances Truths Phenomena Rules Models Case studies Statistical norms Methodologies Algorithms as to be, to have, and to do.