By Hazel Carter
This is often the fourth in a chain of person guides on Zambian languages and grammar. The goal of the sequence is to spice up the meagre scholarship and availability of academic fabrics on Zambian languages, which turned relatively in pressing in 1996, following the choice of the Zambian executive to revert to the coverage of utilizing neighborhood languages as media of guide. This quantity offers a grammatical caricature of Tonga, a Bantu language spoken in southern Zambia. it's the mom tongue of a few 800,000 humans. Chapters hide humans and dialects, sound structures and orthography, morphology and syntax.
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Extra info for An outline of Chitonga grammar
With emphasison the object: 34 índá wàano wywé nàqnzi 'passby here (whereI am) and drink some water' 'do it like that (asI've told you)' kocítábòbuya This is stabilisedwith SE3: eci cipeto 4ci-céclyó cámüpáyílówónnwàni' 'this tax is úat very (one ofthe) tibute to the chief Stemwith AP5: -/í*,ke This stemmeans'alone',andhaspreÍixesfor personsaswell asclasses: en-díkke 'I alone' ttyo-líkke 'you pl alone' ba-líkke 'they alone(persons)' Apparently úere is no stabilisedform, the stabilisedpronounof Serieslb (see pp.
The complete pattern set is shown for úe present/Future Indicativeonly. Formsare hyphenatedto show the various elementsin their make-up: tuJa-sal-a 'we choose,are choosing' consistsof úe Sp -ta-, tense marker -la-, verb root -sal- andfinal vowel -a- which is a secondpart of thetensemarker. progressive,meaning 'be doing'.
I)n-sekz (í)n-póngo (i)ng-ata (i)ah-onbe (i)nh-anzi hens goats crests cattlç cracks(sg. Class I l) Classes 9/10containmanynamesofanimals. 22 ll lu-yando lú-bono lwe-endo ló-ozi Iw-h(y)i lwa-anzí lovc propçrty joumey baÍk string river crack Many ClassI I nounsareabskactsfiom vcrbs;somehavepluralsin Classl0 or Class6. 12 ka-ambo reason 13 twa-ambo reasons kÃ-mbÌzi l<á-sínbi ke-embe I