By Pramod R. Bhave
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Additional info for Analysis of Flow in Water Distribution Networks
3 HYDRAULIC AND ENERGY GRADE LINES If at each point along a pipeline, the pressure head ply is plotted as a vertical distance above the centre line, the locus of end points gives the pressure head line or the hydraulic grade line, HGL. More generally, it is the plot of the piezometric head Z + (p/y) above a convenient datum against length along the pipe. It is, therefore, sometimes known as the piezometric line. , when the gauge pressure is positive, the HGL is above the centre line of the pipe.
They have presented a chart for the effect of water temperature on CR values and have also presented a nomograph for direct estimation of the loss of head for flow of water at about 20°C O = 1 X 10"6 m2/s) for smooth pipes for different diameters and discharges . As the use of the modified HW formula requires determination of CR values which in turn depend upon the Reynolds number and relative roughness of the pipe, it is preferable to use the rational, dimensionally homogeneous and simple Darcy-Weisbach formula for which the coefficient of friction can be explicitly determined as described earlier.
3 G2-3. 4, as obtained from the consideration of the entire network. In this example: (1) The supply rate at junction 6 can be found either by considering the network as a whole or by determining the discharge in pipes 6-5 and 6-3 and then considering junction 6. (2) The absolute values for the pipe discharges cannot be determined by simply applying the continuity principle. They can be expressed only in terms of discharges in some pipes. In the solution herein, the pipe discharges are expressed in terms of the discharge in pipes 1-2 or 2-3 or both.