Failure Analysis and Prevention by W. T. Becker, R. J. Shipley

By W. T. Becker, R. J. Shipley

Quantity eleven covers the overall engineering features of failure prevention and basic root explanations, fabrics choice, and the position of layout studies in failure prevention and research. contains disasters with regards to metals production operations, and the more and more very important function of lifestyles review tools in failure prevention Failure research proves, rules, practices, instruments, and strategies used to accomplish and assessment failure research paintings and the reasons, mechanisms, appearances, and prevention technique for the 4 vintage sorts of failure.

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Adding the installation stress to the normal cyclic stresses results in a leak due to fatigue cracking. Weld repair of a material that is sensitive to high heat cycles, causing brittle cracking and subsequent fatigue failure Misalignment of a bearing during rebuild, causing bending loads on the shaft and resulting failure by rotating bending fatigue Inappropriate Modifications. An example of this would be part-through drill holes in bicycle handlebar stem resulting in fatigue initiation at holes and subsequent fracture (Fig.

Identify the main cause categories as branches converging on the failure. Brainstorm and list all causes on each branch. Analyze the data until the root cause(s) are identified (Ref 11). Fig. 36 Simplified fishbone diagram Five Whys is a simple technique that is intended to lead the user into deeper levels of cause identification, thus leading one further into root cause. The overall objective is to ask “why” after each cause has been identified until true root causes are identified. There actually may be more or less than five “whys” to reach the root-cause level desired (Ref 11).

Understanding these influences is important for effective failure analysis and determining root cause. Likewise, mitigation of the stressors is often the most logical solution to reducing susceptibility to failure. The influence of stressors is heavily dependent on the susceptibility of the component, performance criteria, the magnitude of the stressor, exposure, and the material susceptibility. The six stressors are: • • • • • • Mechanical: Applied static, dynamic or cyclic loads, pressure, impact, fabrication-induced residual stresses, applied end movements Chemical: Inadvertent acute or chronic exposure to an aggressive chemical environment, material compatibility issues Electrochemical: A susceptible metal in a corrosive aqueous environment Thermal: Exposure to elevated temperatures resulting in materials degradation Radiation: Ultraviolet lighting, sunlight, ionizing radiation from nuclear power plants, and so forth Electrical: Applied electrical stress due to the presence of an electric field Four Categories of Failures The physical failure of materials can be placed in one of many categories depending on the classification system.

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