Assessing Sanitary Mixtures in East African Cities by Sammy C. Letema

By Sammy C. Letema

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2. Forms of environmental infrastructure provision (Weitz & Franceys, 2002; K’Akumu, 2006). Form of provision Asset ownership Operation & Capital maintenance investment Household private private household household Community community community Small-scale providers Public agencies Service contracts Management contract Lease contract Concession Built-operate transfer Divestures Commercial Duration Tariff Monitor risk (years) regulation quality private business public private private with public public with community private private with public public with community private indefinite private public private public public public public unlimited public public public public public 1-2 public public public private & public private public public 3-5 public public public private public shared 8-15 public public public private & public private private private private private private private 25-30 20-30 public public public public private private private indefinite public public indefinite community public variable 2.

In system X, the urine is separated (scale 1 in flows dimension), is constructed by artisan but financed and initiated by households (scale 2 in participation dimension), located at household level (scale 1 in scale dimension) and managed by CBOs (scale 2 in management dimension). In systems Y, the system is managed by state (scale 6 in management dimension) is of medium urban in population (scale 5 in scale dimension), no end-user participation except in service charge payments (scale 2. Modernised sanitary mixtures: a paradigm shift in sanitary provision 39 6 in participation dimension) and domestic sewage is combined with industrial waste (scale 6 in flows dimension).

5). 3. Assessment scales for large versus small scale sanitary provision. Assessment scale Spatial/service level Population served (P) 1 • • • • • • • • 5-50 2 3 4 5 6 household dwelling unit housing cluster community neighbourhood small urban medium urban large urban >50-1500 >1,500-5,000 >5,000-50,000 >50,000-250,000 >250,000 2. g. g. g. 5). 5) is viewed as establishing the relationship between sanitary systems and their management arrangements. The relationship can help in merging technical and spatial scale with required institutional arrangement through rebalancing of roles and responsibilities.

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