Auger electron spectroscopy : practical application to by John Wolstenholme

By John Wolstenholme

This e-book discusses using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning Auger microscopy for the characterization of a variety of technological fabrics, together with, metals and alloys, semiconductors, nanostructures, and insulators. Its worth as a device for high-resolution elemental imaging and compositional intensity profiling is illustrated and the application of the procedure for acquiring compositional details from the surfaces, interfaces, and skinny movie buildings of technological and engineering fabrics is tested. This quantity additionally describes the elemental actual rules of AES in easy, mostly qualitative phrases. significant parts of ordinary Auger spectrometers also are defined. The ebook discusses different different types of research for which an Auger electron spectrometer can be used, for instance, secondary electron microscopy, backscattered electron imaging, X-ray spectroscopy, in addition to the connection among AES and different research suggestions

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Example text

Professor Auger was responsible for the establishment or promotion of nine national or international organizations. He died in 1993 but his name lives on, not only with AES but also in the naming of what is currently the world’s largest cosmic ray observatory located in Argentina. He was nominated for a Nobel Prize but never received one. A short biography of Pierre Auger has been published (Persson 1996). Although the phenomenon was observed independently by both Auger and Meitner in the 1920s, neither suggested its use as an analytical technique in surface analysis.

However, if the spectrometer is equipped with a source of ions (usually having an energy in the range of a few hundred electron volts to about 5 keV) it is possible to construct depth profiles of the near surface region of the solid. This is accomplished by analyzing the surface, using the ion beam to erode the sample by sputtering, repeating the analysis and continuing with this alternation of analysis and erosion until the required depth is reached. In principle, this depth profiling technique can be used to analyze the solid upto any depth but, in practice, analysts do not use it for depths greater than a few microns because of the time required to measure a profile to greater depths plus complicating artifacts that get worse as a function of depth (see later).

Although the phenomenon was observed independently by both Auger and Meitner in the 1920s, neither suggested its use as an analytical technique in surface analysis.  Lander, a scientist working for Bell Telephone Laboratories in New Jersey, recognized it as an interesting technique for surface analysis. A. Harris, working for General Electric in New York, used low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) optics to obtain Auger spectra from metal surfaces. His breakthrough was in realizing the importance of differentiating the kinetic energy distribution in order to achieve sufficient sensitivity when using LEED optics for a viable analytical technique.

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