Biochemical Basis of Medicine by EriC.D. Wills (Auth.)

By EriC.D. Wills (Auth.)

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41 iii. Retention of undigested particles in the 'tertiary lysosomal' state for prolonged periods. Examples of pathological processes in which lysosomes have been implicated are listed below. a. Excess of vitamin A (cf. Chapter 14) It has been known for many years that vitamin A in excess is very toxic and even fatal. High doses of the vitamin cause the cessation of growth of young animals, congenital malformations, and abnormalities and fractures of bone. g. cathepsins, from the cells into the media.

The carrier is specific for D-glucose because L-glucose enters the cell very slowly. e. they possess active sites that can be saturated with the substrate, in this case glucose. The transport is not inhibited by inhibition of glycolysis, indicating that a supply of energy is not required, but it can Concentration outside = X 0 Concentration inside = Xj C = Carrier molecule Xi>Xo Active transport is a very important process enabling cells to accumulate molecules or ions from the environment against the concentration gradient.

The process of glycolysis is controlled at the stages shown in Fig. 2. This is essential because it may be necessary to store glucose as glycogen or to utilize it for energy production. An important site of control is the regulation of the enzyme phosphofructokinase which converts fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-diphosphate. This enzyme is allosterically inhibited by ATP or citrate and activated by ADP or AMP. If the supply of energy is adequate, as indicated by the excess availability of ATP or by the high concentrations of citric acid cycle intermediates, then glycolysis is switched off or dampened down.

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