Biological Monitoring in Water Pollution by John Cairns

By John Cairns

Ebook by means of Cairns, John

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R e c o g n i t i o n of t h e n e e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e c o m p l e x , a u t o n o m o u s , f u n c t i o n i n g u n i t . It h a s b e e n defined a s " a f u n c t i o n a l e n t i t y w i t h i n t e r n a l changes. functional functional analyses into biological m o n i t o r i n g extends beyond t h e scientific c o m m u n i t y . T h e U . S . C o n g r e s s specified & t h a t w a t e r q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a d o c u m e n t s w r i t t e n in a c ­ of c o r d a n c e w i t h F e d e r a l W a t e r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act e c o s y s t e m s s h o u l d b e h o l i s t i c .

W h i t w o r t h & L a n e (1969) u s e d s m a l l w a d i n g p r e s s e d p h o t o s y n t h e t i c r a t e s a n d c a u s e d a c h a n g e in p o o l s t o e v a l u a t e t h e effects of a v a r i e t y of t o x i c a n t s c o m m u n i t y succession and colonization rates. B r o o k o n m i x e d a l g a l a n d fish p o p u l a t i o n s , u s i n g c h a n g e s in & B a k e r (1972) c o n d u c t e d in situ community studies evaluating metabolism (photosynthesis and respir­ t h e eff'ects of i n t e r m i t t e n t c h l o r i n a t i o n in a c o n t i n u ­ ation) to indicate stress.

W h i l e h i s r e s u l t s w e r e Bacterial activity also can be m o n i t o r e d by measur­ ing r a d i o l a b e l e d c a r b o n cally, o r g a n i c lotic m i c r o c o s m s variable, assimilatory sulfate r e d u c t i o n measurements 1973). Typi­ w e r e useful in d e t e c t i n g s t r e s s d u e t o c o p p e r , d i c h r o - -acetate, -amino acids, mate, water munities. u p t a k e (Bott, [^"^Clglucose, and other c o m m o n flow-through way photosynthesis (Hynes, 1 9 6 9 ) so that even net oxygen substrates are added to s a m p l e s , a n d t h e r a t e of u p t a k e is u s e d t o indicate and chlorine in microcosm microbial Bacterial growth rates have also been com­ measured h e t e r o t r o p h i c a c t i v i t y .

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