By Vera Fantl, Anna Creer, Christian Dillon, Janine Bresnick (auth.), Jan A. Mol, Roger A. Clegg (eds.)
Proceedings of the ecu Cooperation within the box of clinical and Technical examine (COST 825) Symposium on Mammary Gland Biology, held September 16-18, 1999, in excursions, France.
it's tricky to overstate the evolutionary and useful importance of mammary tissue in biology. gigantic growth has been made through researchers in numerous disciplines, really over the past fifteen years, in the direction of knowing the possibility of this tissue to yield strong experimental versions for morphogenesis and tissue improvement; for mobile differentiation; for the biosynthesis and secretion of proteins, lipids, small molecules and inorganic salts; and for the coordination and law of those approaches. extra lately, the potential of exploiting the secretory epithelial cells of mammary tissue as `cell factories' has develop into a fact and the recombinant creation by way of lactating animals of a growing number of proteins, necessary either within the pharmaceutical and `nutraceutical' fields, is in development or less than improvement.
additionally during this sphere of agricultural construction, genetic in addition to dietary applied sciences are lower than research and exploitation to optimize milk composition for varied end-uses - for example in foodstuff approach and manufacture. the chances of deriving well-being enjoy the bioactive homes of a few of the minor parts of milk are rising to counter the highly-publicized destructive health and wellbeing effect of over the top intake of saturated animal fat. In human food and drugs, the mammary gland is either a resource of meals to the neonate and a possible future health danger to the grownup lady - breast melanoma is still the foremost unmarried reason behind lady mortality in so much constructed international locations.
This quantity presents a distinct glimpse into our knowing, on the leading edge of quite a few disciplines, of this flexible and amazing tissue, on the start of the twenty-first century.
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Additional resources for Biology of the Mammary Gland
3 Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) For RT-PCR, total cellular RNA was denatured at 65°C for 10 min, quick-cooled on ice and reverse transcribed in a final volume of 20 ml. When RNA had been prepared using snap-frozen tissue and Tripure Reagent, 5 mg RNA were used for the RT reaction. 75 mM dNTP, 3 mM MgCl2, 30 units RNase inhibitor and 50 units ExpandTM reverse transcriptase. All reagents were purchased from Boehringer Mannheim, Germany. 4 mM dNTP, 4 units Taq polymerase (Boehringer, Mannheim, Germany) and 100 pmol of each primer.
IGF-1 has been implicated as a survival factor for many different cell types22, including the mammary epithelium and since milk from involuting mammary glands contained large quantities IGFBP-5, we proposed that this served to inhibit IGF-1 actions in the gland. Our studies also showed that both prolactin and GH maintained mammary gland function by inhibiting programmed cell death or apoptosis31. We further demonstrated that only prolactin was able to influence IGFBP-5 synthesis30 serving as a potent inhibitor of IGFBP-5 expression.
Whereas mRNA for IGF-II could be demonstrated during all stages of mammary gland development using RT-PCR, no immunostaining was seen for this growth factor. 2 IV + + ++ - - ++ ++ +few no +few no + + +- ++ +++ +++ +++ (few) (few) - - - ++ + - +++ (many) Immunoreactive FGF-2 was observed in virgin heifers in endothelial cells, ductal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells. During mammogenesis positive immunostaining occurred additionally in the epithelium of some alveoli. During lactogenesis only endothelial and myoepithelial cells were immunopositive.