By Joseph Hamill
Support your scholars comprehend the whole continuum of human circulate strength with the Fourth variation of this rigorous—yet understandable—introductory textual content out there.
Focusing at the quantitative nature of biomechanics, Biomechanical foundation of circulation, Fourth version integrates present literature, significant numerical examples, correct purposes, hands-on workouts, and practical anatomy, physics, calculus, and body structure to aid your scholars strengthen a holistic figuring out of human stream. The book’s chapters are primarily self-contained, permitting you greatest educating flexibility in structuring your course.
The Fourth version deals new content material, new examples and functions, and on-line educating and studying assets to avoid wasting you time and support your scholars succeed.
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Additional info for Biomechanical Basis of Human Movement
Stiffness is thus calculated as k = stress/strain = s/e Actuator FIGURE 2-2 A testing machine that determines the stress–strain properties of an amputated foot. (Reprinted with permission from Alexander, R. M. . The Human Machine. ) to the surface of the structure over a predetermined area. The unit in which a force is measured is the newton (N). The unit of area is the square meter (m2). Thus, the unit of stress is newton per square meter (N/m2), or the pascal (Pa). Stress Normal As greater force is applied to the structure, the slope of the curve eventually decreases.
Osteons are pillar-like structures that are oriented parallel to the stresses that are placed on the bone. The arrangement of these weight-bearing pillars and the density of the cortical bone provide strength and stiffness to the skeletal system. Cortical bone can withstand high levels of weight bearing and muscle tension in the longitudinal direction before it fails and fractures (46). Cortical bone is especially capable of absorbing tensile loads if the collagen fibers are parallel to the load.
28 Section I Foundations of Human Movement Plastic flow σf Stress σy A human adult tibia and the actual stress–strain relationship during jogging. When a structure is deformed by an applied force, the strain developed in the material relates to the mechanical energy absorbed by the material. The amount of mechanical energy stored is proportional to the area under the stress–strain curve (Fig. 2-7). That is, the stored mechanical energy is: ME = 1/2se B Residual strain Strain εy FIGURE 2-5 A stress–strain curve of a material that has been elongated into the plastic region.