Carbon Science and Technology: From Energy to Materials by Pierre Delhaes

By Pierre Delhaes

Carbon solids were used by guy given that prehistoric instances, first as a resource of warmth after which for different reasons; those are used as key markers for various civilizations. the basic position performed by means of coal mines through the business revolution as a primary resource of strength is a vital element, which was once then increased throughout the improvement of carbochemistry.

This ebook starts off by way of describing using stable carbons as conventional fabrics, for instance within the metal and for ceramics, then relocating directly to their technological makes use of equivalent to energetic carbons and carbon fibers, etc., sooner than discussing nanocarbons, the jewel within the crown of latest technological technology. the ultimate bankruptcy analyzes the present monetary and social influence of carbon solids.

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BOUSSAC, “la photosynthèse”, Clefs-CEA, vol. 49, pp. 86-92, 2004. [TEM 00] R. TEMPLE, Le génie de la Chine: 3000 ans de découvertes et d’inventions, Philippe Picquier, Paris, 2000. W. VAN KREVELEN, Coal, Typology, Chemistry, Physics, Constitution, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1961. [VER 01] J. VERHOEVEN, “Le mystère des épées de Damas”, Pour la Science, vol. 286, pp. 48-54, 2001. Chapter 2 The Polymorphism of Carbon The main goal of this chapter is to assess the established knowledge regarding carbonaceous solids, which is based on three important advances made during the last century.

3. Uses of dispersed carbons The great civilizations of antiquity developed various uses for pulverulent carbons. The Egyptians used plant-based charcoal as an antidote and remedy for stomach problems, as reported in papyri from the 16th Century BC [BER 75]; its adsorbent properties were also used 14 Carbon Science and Technology to filter and purify water. Smoke residue or soot and animal-based charcoals were used in makeup (kohl) and for tattoos. In their treatises on medicine, Hippocrates and Pliny the Elder, in his monumental Natural History, wrote of the use of wood charcoal to treat certain illnesses [DER 95].

The movement from one state to another is characterized by a phase transition, a phenomenon that obeys wellestablished rules. In the case of a pure body with a single solid phase, there is an invariant triple point with coexistence of the three phases. In the case of allotropy, there is competition between the different solid phases, obeying general stability criteria. In the solid phase, atoms or molecules are ordered spatially thanks to the presence of chemical bonds and the associated energy gain.

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