Chemical Metallurgy by J. J. Moore

By J. J. Moore

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This is particularly so in the case of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. The middle three elements display properties that smoothly change to those of the heaviest element with the basic nature of the elements increasing and the lower oxidation state becoming more stable. The heaviest element in the group displays stable oxidation states lower than the group state and has the most metallic character. The chemistry of the p-block elements is varied as they include all the non-metals together with some metals.

1978 Chemistry Data Book. London: Murray. G. B. 1971 General and Inorganic Chemistry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2 Metallurgical Thermodynamics Thermodynamics is the study of the energies involved in a reaction and, therefore, provides information regarding the driving force behind a reaction. By studying the energy requirements it is possible to determine the optimum conditions necessary to provide the desired reaction. e. H or enthalpy. e. S or entropy, often referred to as the degree of disorder.

C(graphite) + 0 2 ( g ) — ^ C 0 2 ( g ) ; AHf98 = -393 kJ m o l -1 so # Î 9 8[ C 0 2( g ) ] 1 2 Data b o o k s ' furnish values of = A/^2 [ C 0 2( g ) ] 9 8 = -393 k J m o r 1 (AHf) for compounds, usually at 298 K. 5) 4- 2 ( - 2 9 8 ) ] - [ 2 ( - 9 4 . 4 1 2 (2) By reference to a suitable data book ' reactions: calculate AH^9S for each of the following (a) 3Zn(s) + A l 2 0 3 ( s ) — • 2Al(s) + 3ZnO(s) (b) M g C 0 3 ( s ) — > M g O ( s ) 4- C 0 2 ( g ) (3) Use the following data to calculate the standard enthalpy change for the formation of ethane: (4) C(s) 4- 0 2 ( g ) - ^ C 0 2 ( g ) ; Δ / / ?

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