Coal Utilisation: Technology, Economics and Policy by L. Grainger, J. Gibson

By L. Grainger, J. Gibson

The authors who've collaborated in penning this publication have additionally labored jointly for greater than a decade in selling Coal Utilisation R&D. They endure a considerable accountability for how the coverage of the nationwide Coal Board during this box has built given that 1966 and, extra without delay, for the programme of labor on the Coal learn institution, Stoke Orchard, close to Cheltenham. After a interval of relative overlook, R&D on Coal Utilisation has flourished in recent times, either in volume and the significance ascribed to it. a large number of technical information has been got from the pioneering experimental paintings and this may shape the root on which titanic new industries will be dependent. The timing and enterprise of the appliance of technical details into those new coal conversion industries represents, within the authors' view, crucial query within the entire box of strength, that is now extensively recognized as an important point of social and financial improvement. the size of the recent coal utilisation organizations can be better, and their good fortune extra serious, than that of the other improvement within the box of power, together with that of nuclear strength or the renewable assets. This ebook is, hence, now not directed particularly at technical specialists within the box of coal utilisation, and specifically it isn't meant to enlighten those that specialize in specific sections of this technology.

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This property can be used in classification systems and also as a routine on-line quality control check. The behaviour of coal on heating is of particular importance in coking and is further discussed in the chapter on carbonisation; these properties do nonetheless have great importance in other uses, including combustion. Briefly, many coals soften on heating, starting from about 350°C. On further heating, particles of coal first become quite fluid, with some contraction as they fuse together; then they expand under the action of gas and vapour bubbles.

In the classical chemical methods of determining structure, the empirical formula (relative numbers of combining chemical elements), the molecular weight and WHAT IS COAL? 8 Correlation of Thiessen-Bureau of Mines Nomenclature (Thin Section Method) with Stopes-Heerlen Nomenclature (Polished Block Method) of Hard Coal·. Courtesy Internationale Kommission fur Kohlenpetrologie Transmitted light Reflected light ------------ ---- Thiessen-Bureau of Mines system Banded compollellts Stopes-Heerlen system Constituents of attritus b anthraxylon Itranslucent) vitrinite more than 14 I' in width --y------- --- translucent attritus ----- - - - - - ---------- vitrinite translucent humic matter vitrinite less than 14 I' in width attritus spores.

Are used to denote the number of parts of electrode coke (inert) which must be added to one part of the coal to reduce the swelling to the standard G level. In the Audibert-Arnu Dilatometer Test changes in the length of a pencil of compacted coal particles on heating are followed by means of a loose piston in the cylinder containing the coal; the percentage contraction and the percentage dilatation are reported. The Roga test is used to determine the coking power of the coal more directly. A button of coke is produced and is then subjected to a repeated process of breaking in a revolving 0 0 WHAT IS COAL?

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