Combustion and Incineration Processes by Walter R. Niessen

By Walter R. Niessen

Explores the operation and evaluate of incineration platforms for harmful and non-hazardous gaseous, liquid, sludge, and stable wastes. Identifies layout parameters and working features for a variety of incineration structures.

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Ref. , Ref. 5). , in sulfuric acid manufacture by the Contact Process). , regarding secondary air pollution problems). A few of these concerns include the following four areas. 1. Carbon monoxide. As discussed later, CO may be formed in appreciable quantities in solids burning, if combustion temperatures are low, and in systems operated at or below stoichiometric conditions. 2. Chlorine. , NaCl or CaCl2 ) will most likely remain as the salt. Organic chlorine compounds, however, react with hydrogen to form hydrogen chloride (to the extent of the hydrogen available from all sources, including moisture in the combustion air).

Both have utility in anticipating or understanding slag buildup problems. Although most combustors are oxidizing overall, almost any combustor has some oxygen-deficient zones. Such zones include the pyrolyzing=gasifying mass on refuse incinerator grates or sludge incinerator hearths and regions in other furnaces where the local air supply is overwhelmed by the available combustible matter. This can be very important since the fusion characteristics of ash can change dramatically as the environment shifts from oxidizing to reducing.

Heat one hour at 104 to 110 C. Report weight loss as moisture. Ignite in a covered crucible for seven minutes at 950 C and report the weight loss (combined water, hydrogen, and the portion of the carbon initially present as or converted to volatile hydrocarbons) as volatile matter. Ignite in an open crucible at 725 C to constant weight and report weight loss as fixed carbon. Report the residual mass as ash. , solvent) with significant vapor pressure at 110 C. The value for ‘‘volatile matter’’ includes organic compounds driven off or pyrolyzed but may also include water driven off from hydroxides or hydrates.

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