Computer Analysis of Number Sequences by Henry Ibstedt

By Henry Ibstedt

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D immediately precedes o in the plaintext; h immediately precedes in the plaintext; u immediately precedes t in the plaintext; .. 34 were independent, Pr{y(0) , y(1) =ADJ(0, 1)} ¼ Pr{do |{z} . . h |{z} . . ut |{z} . . 34 are not independent; for example, as the 2-grams do and h are separated by four positions, we have . . } = Pr{do} Pr{h}: Pr{do |{z} . . h |{z} NÀ2 NÀ2 However, as the separations between these 2-grams in the plaintext increase, meaning as N ", the dependency of the 2-grams in ( y (0), y (1)) lessens.

In 1937, Ernest Vincent Wright published the novel Gadsby [Wright, 1931] in which the most frequent letter in English, E, did not appear. It could not have been a very big seller – it could not mention sex, money, murder, greed, or tenure, but it is remarkably coherent. Gadsby begins Youth, throughout all history, had had a champion to stand up for it; to show a doubting world that a child can think; and, possibly, do it practically; you would constantly run across folks today who claim that ’a child don’t know anything’.

Z (upper and lower case) in an early version of this chapter with standard letter probabilities in English and those in Wright’s Gadsby. The success of cryptanalysis cannot depend on the striking agreement between the ciphertext statistics and the frequencies of the underlying language, as the above graph illustrates. On the other hand, it is unreasonable to assume that plaintext has been artificially created to mask the letter frequencies. 11 AN EXAMPLE OF THE INFERENCE PROCESS IN CRYPTANALYSIS Although statistical characteristics provide information to aid in cryptanalysis, more often internal constraints in the cryptographic system provide a great deal of information.

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