By Melanie Manion
This ebook contrasts studies of mainland China and Hong Kong to discover the urgent query of the way governments can remodel a tradition of common corruption to 1 of unpolluted govt. Melanie Manion examines Hong Kong because the top instance of the potential for reform. inside of many years it accomplished a spectacularly winning conversion to wash executive. Mainland China illustrates the trouble of reform. regardless of greater than twenty years of anticorruption reform, corruption in China maintains to unfold basically unabated. The ebook argues that the place corruption is already normal, the context during which officers and usual voters make offerings to transact corruptly (or now not) is crucially varied from that during which corrupt practices are unusual. A important function of this distinction is the function of ideals concerning the incidence of corruption and the reliability of presidency as an enforcer of ideas ostensibly constraining legit venality. Anticorruption reform in a atmosphere of common corruption is an issue not just of lowering corrupt payoffs, but additionally of fixing widely shared expectancies of venality. The ebook explores adjustments in institutional layout offerings approximately anticorruption enterprises, applicable incentive constructions, and underlying constitutional designs that give a contribution to the disparate results in Hong Kong and mainland China.
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Additional info for Corruption by Design: Building Clean Government in Mainland China and Hong Kong
An editorial in the Hong Kong Law Journal summarized public reaction: “The ordinary man in the Hong Kong street quite fairly thinks it monstrous that a senior British official should be able to commit a serious criminal offence in the Colony and then be permitted to enjoy his ill-gotten wealth in Britain, safe under the protection of British law” (“Godber” 1973: 249). To be sure, street protests against the government in 1973 were nothing comparable to the antigovernment riots of 1966 or 1967—this owed much to the governor’s swift response.
Specifically, Section 9 of the law, on “corrupt transactions with agents,” considers as corruption any offer, solicitation, or acceptance of an “advantage” to induce or reward action (or inaction) or favor (or disfavor) relating to a principal’s business, except when the principal gives permission to the agent to solicit or accept the advantage. This form of corruption, where neither principal nor agent are in the public sector, is beyond the scope of criminal activities considered in this book.
13 Put another way, the Corruption Prevention Department works on “rendering [corruption] difficult,” the Community Relations Department works to “create and sustain a general social climate in which corruption is condemned,” and the Operations Department works on “making it [corruption] a high-risk crime” (ICAC 1981: 56). Corruption and Anticorruption Reform in Hong Kong • 37 Despite its political significance and (as shown below) actual impact, the ICAC began as (and has remained) a small department relative to others in the Hong Kong government.