Cryptography: A Very Short Introduction by Fred Piper, Sean Murphy

By Fred Piper, Sean Murphy

This booklet is a transparent and informative creation to cryptography and information protection--subjects of substantial social and political significance. It explains what algorithms do, how they're used, the dangers linked to utilizing them, and why governments can be involved.

Important parts are highlighted, comparable to move Ciphers, block ciphers, public key algorithms, electronic signatures, and functions reminiscent of e-commerce.

This publication highlights the explosive impression of cryptography on sleek society, with, for instance, the evolution of the net and the creation of extra subtle banking equipment.

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Thus, for our example, the extended key can be set out as in the diagram. S T A N D S E R C H B E K F G I L K M O P Q U M V W X Y Z V S T A N D 32 The rule for encryption is as follows. • If the two letters lie in the same row of the key then each letter is replaced by the one on its right in the extended key. • If two letters lie in the same column of the key then each letter is replaced by the one below it in the extended key. • If the two letters are not in the same row or column then the first letter is replaced by the letter that is in the row of the first letter and the column of the second letter.

The effect of multiplying by an encryption key and then multiplying by the corresponding decryption key should be to leave the letters unchanged, which is equivalent to multiplying by 1. For example, to check that, for an encryption key of 3, the decryption key is 9, we need only show that 3 × 9 = 1 (mod 26), which, since 3 × 9 = 27 = 26 + 1, is true. Chapter 4 Unbreakable ciphers? Introduction The examples given in Chapter 3 were, of necessity, simple. Most of them are easily broken, although this was not necessarily the situation at the time they were designed.

It is often their intelligence information that is the deciding factor that enables cryptanalysts to break the enemy’s ciphers. Cryptography The statistics of the English language The examples in the last section were all short and were carefully chosen to illustrate specific points. However, even if a Simple Substitution Cipher is used to encrypt reasonably long passages of English text, there are a number of straightforward attacks which reveal the message and the key, or at least the major part of the key.

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