By L. G. Gazso, C. C. Ponta
Using and difficulties linked to organic guns were of shock to NATO and non-NATO army agencies for a few years. till lately, many of the on hand literature addressed the army concerns linked to the potential use of organic guns at the battlefield, the scientific results of a number of the brokers, and what was once identified approximately clinical prophylaxis and coverings. details on different wanted countermeasures, equivalent to decontamination, or public overall healthiness concerns linked to publicity of civilian populations, have been principally neglected. this angle replaced dramatically after the infection of the U.S. Mail procedure with powdered anthrax spores. the tainted mail was once handled with ionizing radiation whereas the tainted govt constructions have been handled with vapor/gas-phase chemical compounds. either the decontamination of the mail and constructing a approach for prophylactic remedy of the mail, have been solved quite speedy. This used to be largely as a result of powerful radiation biology and technical base derived from the commercial use of ionizing radiation. Contributing to the rate of reaction was once the truth that the assault happened in the usa and within the 'home city' of some of the technical specialists and determination makers, permitting legit reaction to be coordinated rapidly.
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Using and difficulties linked to organic guns were of shock to NATO and non-NATO army firms for a few years. till lately, lots of the on hand literature addressed the army matters linked to the prospective use of organic guns at the battlefield, the scientific results of some of the brokers, and what was once identified approximately scientific prophylaxis and coverings.
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6. Alanine (ISO/ASTM 51607) Electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR (or electron spin resonance, ESR) spectroscopy of the amino acid alanine is used for dosimetry. Solid dosimeters in the form of pellets, rods, and films are produced from polycrystalline α-alanine powder and an additive binder. Pure alanine powder without further processing has also been used. Generally, the dose range of the alanine-EPR dosimetry is from 1 Gy to 100 kGy. The actual dose range of a specific system depends on the alanine dosimeter type and the sensitivity of the measurement instrument.
A revalidation is asked from time to time. Historically 25 kGy was considered the sterilization dose for medical devices. There was no obligation for a microbiological validation of any particular case. However 25 kGy was chosen taking into account SAL = 10-6. Two premises stated behind: a) the bioburden level on an item is no higher than 102 CFU; b) the bioburden consists only in Bacillus pumilus. 1 kGy. The bioburden level of 102 is justified by being the maximum accepted level for a non-sterile medical device manufactured in conformity with GMP rules.
7. PMMA (ISO/ASTM 51276) Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) both dyed and colourless, have radiation-coloration properties that make the material useful as dosimeters. Sheet material with thickness in the range of 1 to 4 mm is cut into plaques of a convenient size for spectrophotometric measurement, for example 12 x 38 mm. The dosimeters are sealed in pouches in order to protect them against changes in humidity and to protect the surfaces for optical measurement. Commercially available dosimeters collectively spans a dose range of 100 Gy to 100 kGy as given in Table 1.